Planning and accounting of fixed assets and other assets. Accounting Methodology
Accounting methodology of fixed assets and other assets
To simplify planning, it is recommended that assets be grouped – according to the useful lives or methods of depreciation, the cost or other criteria. Fixed assets, intangible and investment assets, in accordance with the logic of business planning, also identified as a separate group, which appear in the financial statements and are calculated separately.
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1. Fixed assets and other assets
In BudgetPlan Express three groups of assets are distinguished: fixed assets, intangible assets and investment property (investment asset).
Fixed assets  this is part of the property used by the organization for a long time (more than 12 months) in the production of products (works, services), as well as for management purposes.
Intangible assets are identifiable nonmonetary assets that have no physical form, which are used for a long time (more than 12 months) in the production or provision of goods or services, for leasing to other parties or for administrative purposes.
Investment property (investment asset) is an immovable property owned by an organization (as an owner or lessee under a finance lease) for the purpose of leasing or increasing its value, and not for use in the production process or sale. Investment property is allocated to a separate asset group for inclusion in "Investment Assets." The investment asset will be available for addition in the "Investment Property" tab (see «Planning and accounting of investment assets»).
2. Useful life and depreciation period
The useful life includes the period of actual use and applies in depreciation calculations . The period of the actual use of the asset is taken into account in the algorithm for calculating depreciation and can not exceed the useful life.
Depreciable assets are divided into 10 conditional groups, depending on the useful life (see «Amortization groups»). The minimum useful life of the asset is at least 12 months. At the same time, there are no strict limitations on the minimum useful life.
In this regard, the program "will allow" to establish a minimum useful life of 6 months for the first group of assets (1224 months). In other cases, the program "will not allow" set to a value that does not match the depreciation group.
For nondepreciable assets, instead of the useful life, the "writeoff period" (in months) is applied. The minimum allowable value is 6 months. The maximum value is 50 years.
The useful life is determined by the user. It can change in cases of improvement (increase) of the originally established indicators as a result of the reconstruction or modernization: "Fixed assets and other assets → Upgrade tab → Increase service life, month". Thus, the useful period of use (respectively, depreciation) will increase by the number of specified months.
As a result, the entire amortization period, taking into account useful and actual terms, modernization and conservation (when depreciation is not accrued) is calculated by formula:
Amortization period of assets 
= 
Useful life 
− 
Term of actual use 
+ 
Increase of the period after modernization 
+ 
Conservation period (no depreciation is accrued) 
3. Depreciation methods in accounting and tax accounting
 Methods in accounting.
Linear method.
In the linear method of depreciation, the annual amount of depreciation is determined based on the initial cost or current (replacement) cost (in the case of revaluation) of the item of fixed assets and the depreciation rate calculated on the basis of the useful life of this object.
The amount of depreciation accrued for one month is calculated as the product of its original value and the depreciation rate determined for the given object.
The amount of depreciation for the month is determined by the formula:
Amortization amount of the asset (months) 
= 
Initial (current market) asset value 
: 
Useful life of the asset (months) 
Example.
The value of the asset is 260 000. The useful life of the asset is – 5 years. Hence, the annual depreciation rate is 20% (100%: 5 years), the annual amount of depreciation is = 52 000 (260 000 : 5 or 260 000 х 20 : 100). Accordingly, the monthly depreciation amount is ≈ 4 333 (52 000 : 12).
Method diminishing balance.
The method of decreasing balance for determining the useful life is established in the case when the efficiency of the use of the fixed asset object decreases with each subsequent year.
The annual amount of depreciation is determined on the basis of the residual value of the item of fixed assets at the beginning of the reporting year and the depreciation rate calculated on the basis of the useful life of this facility and the coefficient not exceeding 3 established by the organization. The value of the accelerated coefficient is set by the user. The default value is 2 .
For example, suppose that an organization uses a factor that is twice the depreciation rate for a linear method (the method of double reduction of the balance). Then, if the useful life is 5 years, the coefficient is:
K = 2/5 = 0,4 (i.e., the depreciation rate = 40%)
Example.
The value of an asset 260 000. The useful life of an asset 5 years. Soso depreciation will be:
1 year: 104 000 (260 000 × 40%),
2 year: 62 400 (156 000 × 40% t. to. 260 000  104 000 = 156 000),
3 year: 37 440 ( 93 600 × 40% t. to. 156 000  62 400 = 93 600),
4 год: 22 464 ( 56 160 × 40% t. to. 93 600  37 440 = 56 160),
5 год: 13 478 ( 33 696 × 40% t. to. 56 160  22 464 = 33 696).
Period for 5 years will be 239 782. Liquidation value (nondepreciable balance) will 218 20 (260 000  239 782).
Cumulative method.
This method is also known as the method of writing off of cost on the sum of the numbers of years useful life. In this method, the annual depreciation rate is determined based on the original cost of the asset annual factor calculated from the ratio: in the numerator – the number of years remaining until the end of the lifetime of the object in the denominator is the sum of the numbers of years of useful life.
Example.
The value of an asset 260 000. The useful life of an asset 5 years. The sum of the numbers of years of beneficial use will 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15, respectively:
For example, if the useful life is 5 years, then the sum of the useful life years is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15, respectively:
Coefficient for 1 year: К = 5/15, Annual depreciation = 260 000 × К = 86 667,
Coefficient for 2 year: К = 4/15, Annual depreciation = 260 000 × К = 69 333,
Coefficient for 3 year: К = 3/15, Annual depreciation = 260 000 × К = 52 000,
Coefficient for 4 year: К = 2/15, Annual depreciation = 260 000 × К = 34 667,
Coefficient for 5 year: К = 1/15, Annual depreciation = 260 000 × К = 17 333.
Accordingly, depreciation for 5 years will be: 86 667 + 69 333 + 52 000 + 34 667 + 17 333 + 260 000.
Proportionally to production volume.
Depreciation is charged in proportion to the amount of work performed (it is necessary to know the volume of production). With this method, amortization is calculated on the basis of the natural indicator of the volume of products (works) in the reporting period and the ratio of the initial value of the fixed asset and the estimated volume of output (work) for the entire useful life of the fixed asset.
The coefficient can be different in each period. And it's natural, for example, the mileage of a car, as a rule, is different in each period. However, you need to take into account that the program uses the planned indicators, therefore, you need to specify the average monthly percentage of depreciation .
Example.
Let, the estimated mileage of the car 400 000 km and the average vehicle mileage – 8000 km Then the percentage of wear for the month: 8000 / 400 000 x 100% = 2%. So, in the "Average volume %" set the value 2.
☛ Note that the planned values can be corrected according to the actual indicators via PAD or in the "Adjustment table".
 Methods in tax accounting.
Linear method.
The linear method in tax accounting is essentially similar to the same method in accounting, with the difference that the use of the accelerated coefficient is additionally permitted. The value of the special (accelerated) coefficient is set by the user. The usual coefficient is calculated by the formula:
K = (1/n),
Where:
K – depreciation rate.
n – useful life, in months.
Respectively:
The amount of depreciation of the asset (months) 
= 
Initial (current market) cost of an asset 
× 
K 
Nonlinear method.
In the case of the nonlinear method, several variants of the choice of the design coefficient are proposed:
 Use default default factor:
K = (2/n),
Where:
K – depreciation rate.
n – useful life, expressed in months.
 Use depreciation rates for the current depreciation group, set in the settings.
To do this, set the flag "Use the metric by group" (see "Depreciation groups").
 Use the accelerated ratio.
The value of the special (accelerated) coefficient is set by the user.
Depreciation groups
All depreciable fixed assets merged into ten depreciation groups. In order to apply the linear method of calculating depreciation, the following depreciation rates:
Group 
Useful life, years 
Depreciation rate,% 
One 
from 1 year to 2 years inclusive 
14,3 
Two 
over 2 years to 3 years inclusive 
8,8 
Three 
more than 3 years up to 5 years inclusive 
5,6 
Four 
over 5 years to 7 years inclusive 
3,8 
Five 
over 7 years to 10 years inclusive 
2,7 
Six 
over 10 years to 15 years inclusive 
1,8 
Seven 
over 15 years to 20 years inclusive 
1,3 
Eight 
over 20 years to 25 years inclusive 
1,0 
Nine 
over 25 years to 30 years inclusive 
0,8 
Ten 
over 30 years 
0,7 
The depreciation rates given in the table included in the initial program settings that can be changed in "General settings". Information about this, see "General settings. Period".
4. Algorithm for calculating deferred taxes
The essence of deferred taxes.
IFRS 12 considers a reflection in the financial statements of both the current tax (the obligation to pay which occurred in the current period) and deferred tax (the obligation to pay which will occur in subsequent periods).
The main reasons for the occurrence of deferred taxes, which are discussed in this section, are two: these are different estimates of accounting and the use of different methods of depreciation in accounting and tax accounting.
The term "deferred taxes" includes deferred tax asset (Deferred tax asset) and deferred tax liability (Deferred tax liability). In the first case ( Deferred tax asset )  the amount of profit tax, recoverable in future periods due to deductible temporary differences. In the second case ( Deferred tax liability )  this is the amount of profit tax, payable in future periods in connection with taxable temporary differences.
When permanent differences arise, permanent deferred taxes arise, respectively, permanent tax assets or liabilities , which lead to a decrease (increase) in profit tax payments in the current period.
Calculation of deferred taxes.
If the company does not pay profit tax, deferred taxes associated with the accounting of assets are not taken into account. However, deferred taxes can be taken into account, for example, in connection with the carry forward of losses for future periods.
In the program, "deferred taxes" are reflected in the line "Profit and Loss Statement" [20] "Deferred tax expenses" and in the balance line [21] "Deferred taxes". The program calculates "deferred taxes" in the following cases:
 When calculating the profit tax (if the appropriate settings in the settings of the calculation).
 When calculating assets.
 When accessing data from the adjustment table (line "Deferred tax expense").
Deferred taxes can arise from difference in accounting and tax accounting. Such differences, it is two: the minuend and taxable. Deductible and taxable differences differences are shown in the table of the accounting of assets in the respective rows:
When deferred taxes are included in the "Profit and Loss statement", these differences are multiplied by the profit tax rate.
Deferred tax assets (Deferred tax asset) arise when the amounts of writeoffs in accounting are greater than in tax accounting ( Accounting  Tax accounting> 0 ), respectively, profit in the accounting accounting is less than in the tax accounting, which leads to the appearance of deductible differences. As the deductible temporary differences decrease or fully pay off, the amount of deferred tax assets will be reduced or fully repaid.
Deferred tax liabilities (Deferred tax liability), on the contrary, arise when the writeoff amounts in the accounting are less than in the tax ( Accounting  Tax accounting <0 ), which leads to occurrence of taxable differences. As taxable temporary differences decrease, the amount of deferred tax liabilities is repaid. Deferred taxes are calculated using the formula:
Time difference Tax rate
Deferred tax asset = [–] Time difference × Tax rate.
Deferred tax liability = [+] Time difference × Tax rate.
Deferred tax asset and Deferred tax liability are calculated according to the methodology formalized in IFRS 12 "Taxes on profit":
Deferred tax asset for the period = Deferred tax asset on the date  Deferred tax asset at the beginning of the period.
Deferred tax liability for the period = Deferred tax liability on the date  Deferred tax liability at the beginning of the period.
Example of the "Profit and Loss statement" table, deferred tax assets
are shown in the sink [20] "Deferred tax expense":
Deferred profit tax expense is determined by the amount of changes in the reporting period in the amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities determined by the balance method:
Deferred tax expense 
= 
Change in deferred tax asset 
+ 
Change in deferred tax liability 
Examples of calculations
Examples of calculations of "deferred taxes", when using different depreciation methods, and in the event of permanent and temporary deductible and taxable differences differences.
The estimated rate of the profit tax – 20%:
Periods of account (15) 
Initial cost 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
Permanent differences: deferred tax liability

Depreciation, Accounting 
500 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
Depreciation, Tax accounting 
400 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
Permanent differences (Accounting  Tax accounting) 
100 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
Change difference 
 
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 
Current tax 
 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
Deferred tax (Deferred tax liability = Permanent differences × 20%) 
 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
Total tax 
 
1004 
1004 
1004 
1004 
1004 
Time difference: deferred tax asset 
Writeoff of an asset, Accounting 
500 
500 
0 
0 
0 
0 
Depreciation, Tax accounting 
500 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
Time difference (Accounting  Tax accounting) 
0 
400 
100 
100 
100 
100 
Change difference 
 
400 
300 
200 
100 
0 
Current tax 
 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
Deferred tax (Deferred tax asset = Time difference × 20%) 
 
80 
20 
20 
20 
20 
Total tax 
 
1080 
980 
980 
980 
980 
Time difference: Deferred tax liability 
Depreciation, Accounting 
500 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
Depreciation, Tax accounting 
500 
200 
75 
75 
75 
75 
Time difference (Accounting  Tax accounting) 
0 
100 
25 
25 
25 
25 
Change difference 
 
100 
75 
50 
25 
0 
Current tax 
 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
Deferred tax (Deferred tax liability= Time difference × 20%) 
 
20 
5 
5 
5 
5 
Total tax 
 
980 
1005 
1005 
1005 
1005 
When you perform the final calculation of the plan ("F9"), deferred taxes are determined by adding all of the calculated deferred taxes and the line "deferred tax" from the table of adjustments: "Settings adjustments and the balance → table adjustments".
Example of calculating deferred taxes, the transfer of the loss (not used in the reporting period) for future periods, see «General settings. Taxes. The algorithm of calculation of profit tax».
5. Calculation of property tax
When calculating the tax, the residual value is determined taking into account the depreciation (for some assets  taking into account the depreciation), according to the formula:
Residual value of taxable assets (property) 
= 
Initial value of assets 
− 
Depreciation of assets 
The basis for calculating advances is the average (average annual) value of property for the reporting period. The average annual value of taxable property is calculated by the formula:
The average annual value of taxable assets (property) 
= 
⌈ ⌊ 
Residual value at the beginning of the year 
+ 
Residual value at the beginning of each month within the reporting period 
+ 
Residual value at the beginning of the month following the reporting period 
⌉ ⌋ 
: 
number of months in the reporting period + 1 
The tax is calculated for the month following the reporting period (quarter, half year, 9 months, year).
To call up a property tax calculation, click (one click) with the left mouse button under the Property Tax link ( F2 ). After that, the program displays a message about the beginning of the calculation.
A detailed algorithm for calculating the property tax, with an example of calculating the tax in BudgetPlan Express, see in the section «Algorithm for calculating property tax».
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